The first problem is explicit racism. This is a form of unequal treatment that is done on purpose.
Often these are individuals who have a negative bias towards people who look different or have a different background.
Violence and hatred are sometimes mentioned that victims experience.
A good example of this are the hate incidents against Asians in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic.
There was then an assumption that all Asians in the Netherlands came from China.
As a result, there were incidents where Asians in the Netherlands were specifically avoided in public, or Asians in the Netherlands were stabbed or booed.
Fortunately, a relatively large number of people in the Netherlands disapprove of such forms of disrespect, which makes it easier to point out similar problems as an inappropriate form of behavior.
The second problem is unconscious racism. This is a form of unequal treatment that is not done on purpose, otherwise known as microaggression.
This often concerns comments or expressions that at first sight seem harmless, but actually be painful for the recipient.
An example of this is asking a person of color where they really come from.
Often these people of color are Dutch who grew up in the Netherlands, so that the person of color feels treated differently.
But also comments under the guise of "it's just a joke" and comments like "Ni Hao" to someone who looks Asian are examples of microaggression.
Because individuals are not aware of their actions, these forms of disrespect are not often recognized as inappropriate behavior.
This makes it more difficult to convince people that it is not a desired behavior. Because there is no violence or obvious hate speech, these kinds of discrimination are often downplayed.